Mania and Hypomania are some of the common bipolar disorders. These both are associated with sudden episodes or periods of mood swings, over-active, irritability, and much more ranging from the severeness of bipolar disorder. Mania (Bipolar I) and Hypomania (Bipolar II) are two common bipolar disorders that are not too often discussed. Though both the disorders are likely to be the same, mania is said to be more severe and lasts for a longer period of time. They both have many similarities that make them more confusing to identify. Let's discuss both bipolar disorders one by one:
Mania has a relatively severe negative impact on the body as compared to hypomania. It disrupts the usual day-to-day activities and makes the individual abnormally energized both physically and mentally. Sometimes in more severe cases, the person even needs to go to the hospital. It makes the person feel full of energy which also sometimes causes them to enter into a euphoric state. Individuals going through mania have higher suicidal rates which are almost 70 times higher than the general public. To treat this type of disorder, doctors mainly use a combination of psychotic drugs and psychotherapy which is treatable in hospitals or clinics. Additionally, in the case of mania, many conditions can trigger a manic episode or period such as higher levels of stress, chronic illness, or disturbed sleep patterns.
As said above, both disorders usually have similar symptoms but some are still very severe in the case of mania. Some severe symptoms of mania include paranoia, impulsivity, pursuit of risky activities, hallucinations, and delusions. And these symptoms usually last a week or so.
Hypomania, as stated on Health Canal, is typically a less severe form of mania that lasts only days or so. It is a relatively milder form of mania. Symptoms, in this case, are not as extremes as mania. Also, signs and bipolar disorder symptoms are quite noticeable in both situations. There is a timely change in behavior and mood, racing thoughts, restlessness, agitation, and being easily distracted are some of the common symptoms. Moreover, the person in the Hypomania case need not be hospitalized until symptoms are much severe. Hypomania is easily treatable; it can be treated without medication just by changing daily lifestyle habits. Getting into physical activity, mediation, and a healthy diet can help to combat sudden hypomanic episodes.
There is no specific or particular cause of a person being manic or hypomanic. The exact cause of Mania and Hypomania is still not clear. They are mostly characterized by symptoms including unusual shifts in mood, energy, and behavior. With this, some of the major causes of these bipolar disorders include:
Let’s understand each of them in detail:
Recent reports have shown that lack of sleep, sleep disturbances or insomnia is one of the common triggers for sudden episodes of mania and hypomania. Even changes in regular sleep patterns, disruptive moods can be triggered. Therefore, good mindful sleep is important for both physical and mental wellbeing.
Drugs, especially cannabis are one of the well-known bipolar disorder triggers. As it affects the neurotransmitters that exist in the brain. Both alcohol and drug intoxication is associated with the impaired outcome of such bipolar disorder. These can even worsen the underlying illness. Additionally, consumption of drugs such as cocaine worsens health and affects treatment.
Seasonal Changes are often termed as 'winter blues' for most people. Seasonal changes can have a severe impact on people having bipolar disorders. For example, in spring or in winter, people are most likely to experience such kinds of bipolar disorders. Winter is typically associated with depressive episodes and manic or hypomanic episodes. Several congenital and environmental factors can influence this system of weather affecting moods.
Negative life events also throw a major impact on mental health. Negative events such as loss of loved ones, breaking relationships or financial stress, or any personal or professional problems for that matter can be profoundly painful for mental health. However, such cases can be sorted at a level by maintaining social support, through self-care, and by taking therapy. It's advisable to make a self-help plan to cope up with such stressful situations.
Mania and Hypomania are bipolar chronic conditions. They must be monitored for a lifetime. And they both are associated with different types of bipolar disorders. Thus, both disorders have different treatments and medications. If an individual suspects any kind of symptoms mentioned above or any seasonal episodes it's good to see a doctor or psychiatrist. As they both cause elevated energy and mood disturbances, it's better to have timely treatment as living with such bipolar disorders is very challenging.